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Dogs + Emergency Situations + English

  • One of the more common uroliths in the dog is composed of calcium oxalate crystals. Current research indicates that urine high in calcium, citrates, or oxalates and is acidic predisposes a pet to developing calcium oxalate urinary crystals and stones. The most common signs that a dog has bladder stones are hematuria and dysuria. The only way to be sure that a bladder stone is made of calcium oxalate is to have the stone analyzed at a veterinary referral laboratory. Unfortunately, calcium oxalate stones have a somewhat high rate of recurrence, despite careful attention to diet and lifestyle.

  • Cats and dogs can become intoxicated by cannabis in various ways, most commonly by eating edibles (e.g., baked goods, candies, chocolate bars, and chips containing cannabis), or by ingesting cannabis directly (in any form). Pets can also be exposed to second-hand smoke. A small amount may affect one pet more than another, so there is no official safe level of exposure. Many of the signs of intoxication are neurological, including disorientation, dilated pupils, and hyperactivity. In severe cases, tremors, seizures, and coma can result. Regardless of the method of exposure, accurate and complete information from the owner is imperative to treat the patient successfully.

  • Sometimes, the location of your dog’s wound or the amount of skin lost can prevent surgical closure or bandaging. This handout describes general guidelines for proper care of your dog's open wound at home, though your veterinarian can provide you with specific instructions.

  • Raising orphan puppies requires great care, time, and vigilance. Puppies must be kept at appropriate temperatures and humidity levels. Hypoglycemia can develop quickly if they are not ingesting food regularly. Orphaned puppies need to be fed appropriate amounts of a commercial puppy milk replacer at regular intervals and can be fed by bottle or feeding tube. After each feeding the puppies will need to be stimulated to urinate and defecate. Around 4 weeks, puppies can start the weaning process onto puppy food by mixing puppy food with the commercial milk replacer to make a gruel-type food. Orphaned puppies need to be dewormed every 2 weeks starting at 2 weeks of age and should start their vaccination series no later than 6 weeks. A veterinarian should be consulted early and frequently throughout the first 6-8 weeks of life.

  • Inside the eye is a lens that focuses light on the back of the eye, or retina. Vision occurs at the retina. The structure of the eye is similar to a camera, which has a lens to focus light on the film. A cloudy or opaque lens is called a cataract.

  • Cervical stenosis is caused by compression of the spinal cord, usually at the base of the neck. Although the spinal cord compression occurs in the neck, the hind legs are often affected first. In severe cases, the dog may suddenly develop total paralysis of all four limbs. The condition is most prevalent in Great Danes and Doberman Pinschers. It is diagnosed by myelography, CT scans, or MRI. Anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics may relieve the initial discomfort, but the greatest chance of success lies with surgery. Most pets enjoy a relatively normal lifestyle following surgery.

  • Chemotherapy drugs are used to treat cancer and other conditions in people because they target and kill rapidly dividing neoplastic (cancer) cells and other cells. They are primarily used as anti-cancer agents but may also provide benefits for a variety of auto-immune disorders and organ transplant recipients as immunosuppressive agents.

  • Chlorfenapyr poisoning is suspected if a pet has access to this pesticide and subsequently develops expected signs; it should also be suspected in a pet exhibiting signs and at risk of malicious poisoning. Pets that develop clinical signs following chlorfenapyr ingestion are unlikely to survive and chronic complications may be present for survivors.  

  • Chocolate is toxic to dogs. While rarely fatal, chocolate ingestion often results in significant illness. Chocolate is toxic because it contains the alkaloid theobromine. Theobromine is similar to caffeine and is used medicinally as a diuretic, heart stimulant, blood vessel dilator, and a smooth muscle relaxant.

  • Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a term that refers to the heart's inability to pump adequate blood to the body. There are many causes of CHF in dogs. The two most common causes are mitral valve insufficiency (MVI), or a leaky mitral valve, the valve between the left atrium and the let ventricle and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).